In this article we will discuss about the dissection of toad.
Dissection of Toad (With Diagram) | Zoology
Also learn about:- 1. Dissection of Alimentary System 2. The Circulatory System 3. Dissection of Venous System 4. Dissection of Arterial System 5.
Dissection of Cranial Nerves 6. Dissection of Spinal and Sympathetic Nerves 7. Dissection of Brain 8. Dissection of Urinogenital System 9. The Urinary Excretory System The Genital System. In structural organisation the toad Fig. To gain a first-hand knowledge in vertebrate anatomy students are asked to dissect toad or frog at the very beginning. Both are most common throughout India.
Toads are placed in a glass jar. A certain amount of cotton wool, depending on the size of the container is soaked with chloroform and placed in the jar. The jar is covered with a glass lid. Within a short period the toads become unconscious. Such specimens are used for dissection. Stretch the limbs and fix them on the tray by pushing down pins through the fore and hind limbs.
Hold the skin of the abdomen with a pair of forceps.
Excretory System in Toad (With Diagram) | Zoology
Lift it a little and make a small cut. Pushing the blunt arm of a pair of scissors through the cut, give an incision in the skin along the mid-ventral line extending anteriorly up to the lower jaw, and posteriorly to the end of the trunk. With lateral incisions cut the skin of the limbs along the length.
Separate the skin from underlying muscles of the ventral surface and the limbs. Pin down the flaps of the skin. Give an incision on the abdominal wall at about its middle at a distance of about 6 mm either on the right or the left side of the mid-ventral line. Proceed for a short distance both anteriorly and posteriorly. Lift the cut end of the abdominal wall with a pair of forceps and find out the anterior abdominal vein attached to the dorsal surface of the wall.
Separate it carefully from the abdominal wall.In this article we will discuss about the excretory system in toad with diagram. Also learn about: 1. Structure of Kidney in Toad 2. Mechanism of Urine Formation in Toad.
Some of these are of no use and may cause harm if they are retained for a long time. Only these end products of metabolism are the waste products. Faeces is not a waste product, because it is not produced by metabolism in the tissues. The principal waste products are urea, uric acid, carbon dioxide, excess of water and mineral salts.
The process by which metabolic waste products are separated and removed from the body is known as excretion. Of the waste products, CO 2 and H 2 O are formed in all the tissues as by-products of internal respiration.
These are expelled by the lungs and skin. Urea and uric acid are nitrogenous waste products. Urea is formed in the liver by the decomposition of amino acids. The amino acids are first broken down to ammonia which is then converted into urea by the liver cells.
Urea, uric acid, excess of water, and mineral salts are excreted in the form of urine. The kidneys are a pair of flattened elongated bodies, reddish- brown in colour, attached to the dorsal wall of the body cavity, one on each side of the vertebral column.
The outer border of each kidney is somewhat convex, and the edges are indented by notches. They join to form a single median tube at the posterior end of the trunk, and this tube finally opens into the dorsal wall of the cloaca. Arising opposite, from the ventral wall of the cloaca, there is a thin-walled bilobed sac called urinary bladder.
Its narrow opening is guarded by a sphincter muscle.Modeling agencies for teenagers
A kidney is composed of a large number of minute tubes called uriniferous tubules. Each tubule begins blindly in a two-walled cup with a narrow mouth. A small afferent vessel from the renal artery enters the capsule and breaks up into a bunch of capillaries which fits into the cup. Ultimately the tubules join with one another to form larger tubes called collecting tubes and these in turn open into the ureter.
The convoluted part of each tubule is surrounded by capillary networks derived from the renal portal vein. Blood loaded with waste products is brought to the kidney by the renal artery and the renal portal vein. Probably the nephrostomes drain away excess of water and other wastes from the body cavity.
The fluid which runs into the ureters via the uriniferous tubules is the urine.How to draw human #excretory system in easy steps :Life processes : Biology :ncert class 10 :Science
It drips into the cloaca continuously and gravitates into the urinary bladder for temporary storage. When filled with urine, the bladder contracts and the content is ejected through the vent. Top Menu BiologyDiscussion. List of 11 Important Phylum Animal Kingdom. Nervous System of Toad: 3 Parts Zoology. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes.Background: As members of the class Amphibiafrogs may live some of their adult lives on land, but they must return to water to reproduce.
Eggs are laid and fertilized in water.Ag leader gps 7500 for sale
The third lid, called the nictitating membraneis transparent. Inside the mouth are two internal nares, or openings into the nostrils; two vomerine teeth in the middle of the roof of the mouth; and two maxillary teeth at the sides of the mouth. Also inside the mouth behind the tongue is the pharynxor throat. In the pharynx, there are several openings: one into the esophagusthe tube into which food is swallowed; one into the glottisthrough which air enters the larynxor voice box; and two into the Eustachian tubeswhich connect the pharynx to the ear.
The digestive system consists of the organs of the digestive tract, or food tube, and the digestive glands. From the esophagus, swallowed food moves into the stomach and then into the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile flows into a tube called the common bile duct, into which pancreatic juicea digestive juice from the pancreas, also flows. The contents of the common bile duct flow into the small intestine, where most of the digestion and absorption of food into the bloodstream takes place.
Indigestible materials pass through the large intestine and then into the cloacathe common exit chamber of the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems. The respiratory system consists of the nostrils and the larynxwhich opens into two lungshollow sacs with thin walls. The walls of the lungs are filled with capillarieswhich are microscopic blood vessels through which materials pass into and out of the blood. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
The heart has two receiving chambers, or atriaand one sending chamber, or ventricle.
Blood is carried to the heart in vessels called veins. Veins from different parts of the body enter the right and left atria. Blood from both atria goes into the ventricle and then is pumped into the arteries, which are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. The kidneys are organs that excrete urine. Connected to each kidney is a uretera tube through which urine passes into the urinary bladdera sac that stores urine until it passes out of the body through the cloaca.
The organs of the male reproductive system are the testes, sperm ducts, and cloac a. Those of the female system are the ovaries, oviducts, uteri, and cloaca. The testes produce spermor male sex cells, which move through sperm ductstubes that carry sperm into the cloaca, from which the sperm move outside the body.
The ovaries produce eggs, or female sex cells, which move through oviducts into the uteri, then through the cloaca outside the body. Nerves branch out from the spinal cord. Voluntary muscles, which are those over which the frog has control, occur in pairs of flexors and extensors.
When the extensor of that body part contracts, the part straightens. Purpose: In this lab, you will dissect a frog in order to observe the external and internal structures of frog anatomy.Kidneys are the major excretory organs in all vertebrates. Some other organs such as lungs, gills, liver, intestine and skin also remove certain waste materials besides their normal functions. These are also known as the accessory excretory organs.Kumkum serial cast
Both shark and frog are anamniotic animals. The kidneys lie dorsal to the coelom and are composed of large number of renal or uriniferous tubules. The malpighian body is a two layered cup, the 'Bowman's capsule' containing a mass of capillaries the 'glomerulus'.
The convoluted tube opens into a Longitudinal duct which extends backwards and opens into the cloaca. The excretory organs remove the nitrogenous waste products formed during the metabolic activities from time to time. If these products are not removed from the body, they are changed to toxic substances. Thank you for sharing this here. Since i am a Biology student and have to complete a writing assignment related to excretory system of different animals and one of them is frog. So by using this content I can complete the essay without the help from a top essay writing service.
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Keep sharing. Paired kidneys are very long and ribbon like. Paired kidneys are short and roughly oval in shape. Each kidney is differentiated into a small non-renal part genital part and a long posterior renal part. The two parts exhibit morphological difference. Each kidney possesses genital as well as renal region.The major organs involved in the process of digestion in frogs include mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and cloaca.
Accessory organs such as the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are also an important part of the digestive system of frogs. This BiologyWise post provides a labeled frog digestive system diagram to help you understand the digestive process in frogs. After catching their prey, frogs close their eyes and retract them through the holes in their skull.Pennzoil for bmw
This helps them push food down the throat. Would you like to write for us? Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. Get in touch with us and we'll talk Frogs belong to Amphibia class and subphylum Vertebratawhich means that they are a class of vertebrates that live on land, but breed in water. They are a part of Anura order.
The characteristic features of these amphibians include short bodies, the absence of tail, long hind legs that allow them to leap, webbed fingers and toes, and protruding eyes. The anatomy of frogs has been of interest to humans due to the striking similarities in the organ systems of frogs and humans. Frogs have a single body cavity in the trunk. Referred to as coelom, this body cavity houses all the internal organs. Their head contains the brain, mouth, eyes, ears, and nose. Like humans, the digestive system of frogs consists of the digestive tract, which in turn comprises organs such as the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and cloaca.
Accessory organs and glands such as the tongue, teeth, salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder perform functions that are essential for the process of digestion. These organs work in tandem to digest or break down the ingested food into smaller molecules or nutrients, which are easier to absorb and assimilate. These nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream, and utilized by the cells and tissues of the body for carrying out the vital body processes.
To get a better understanding of the location of the organs and functions of the digestive system, a labeled diagram of the digestive system of frogs has been provided below.
The digestive process of frogs starts with ingestion, which involves catching their prey flies, spiders, worms, slugs, other insects, and smaller animals that can fit into their mouth with their sticky, cleft or bilobed tongue, and swallowing it.
The tip of the tongue is folded backwards. They have two sets of teeth in the buccal cavity. They use their maxillary teeth located in the upper jaw for holding on to the prey.A frog dissection is cheaper to conduct than larger animal and organ dissections.
Frogs are animals that belong to the class Amphibia, commonly known as amphibians. Amphibians live both on land and in the water; sometimes they live in water only before they are fully grown. They have moist skin that water can pass in and out of, and most of them spend part of their life in the tadpole-like larva stage before they mature in the water.
There are three orders of amphibians: frogs and toads with over 2, species, salamanders including newts with approximately species, and caecilians with about species.
What makes frogs different from other amphibians? They have smooth skin, are usually tailless as adults, and have the ability to leap. Some frogs are aquaticspending most of their time in the water. Others are terrestrialstaying mostly on land or in trees. Toads are also tailless, leaping amphibians, but they usually have rough, warty skin. The lifecycle of a frog begins with a fertilized egg. The female frog usually lays eggs in water in a string or mass that sticks to vegetation.
The male frog fertilizes the eggs as they are laid. The outer layer of a fertilized egg is a jelly-like material that swells in water, forming a protective coating.
The fertilized egg is a single cell that rapidly divides again and again, producing new cells that quickly differentiate into the organs of the frog embryo. Within 2 to 25 days, depending on water temperature, the egg hatches into a tadpole.
The tadpole looks more like a fish at first than like a frog. As the tadpole develops, it forms gills that allow it to breathe efficiently underwater. Its tail grows longer and a fin forms, which allows the tadpole to swim effectively. The tadpole continues to swim, eat and grow for several weeks before it matures to the next stage. The first sign of further development is the appearance of hind legs.
Then front legs develop and the tail becomes shorter as it is resorbed. The young frog grows and matures to adulthood over a period of years.Both man and the frog have the same kinds of organs and systems of organs. As in other higher vertebrates, the frog body may be divided into a head, a short neck, and a trunk see Vertebrates. The flat head contains the brain, mouth, eyes, ears, and nose. A short, almost rigid neck permits only limited head movement.
The stubby trunk forms walls for a single body cavity, the coelom. The human chest is separated from the abdomen by a powerful muscular partition, the diaphragm see Diaphragm. The skull is flat, except for an expanded area that encases the small brain. The human backbone has 24 vertebrae. The frog has no ribs. The frog does not have a tail. Only a spikelike bone, the urostyle, remains as evidence that primitive frogs probably had tails. Man has two forearm bones, the radius and the ulna.
The hind legs of the frog are highly specialized for leaping. Man has two lower leg bones, the tibia and the fibula. In man and in the frog, the femur is the single upper leg thigh bone. These are the astragalus and the calcaneus. The astragalus corresponds to the human talus. The calcaneus in the human skeleton is the heel bone. As in other vertebrates, the frog skeleton is moved by muscles see Muscles.
Internal organs contain smooth muscle tissue. The frog heart is the only organ contained within the coelom which has its own protective covering. This is the pericardium see Heart.
There are two upper chambers of the heart, the right atrium and the left atrium. The frog heart, however, has only one lower chamber, a single ventricle. In man, the lower heart chamber is divided into two compartments, the right ventricle and the left ventricle. Oxygen-laden blood and oxygen-poor blood containing waste gases are present together in the frog ventricle at all times.Gta 5 missing textures
The oxygen-laden and oxygen-poor bloods, however, do not mix. This causes oxygen-poor blood entering the right atrium to pass all the way down to the bottom of the ventricle. Meanwhile, oxygen-laden blood is received by the left atrium and enters the same single ventricle. The pool of oxygen-poor blood at the bottom of the ventricle holds up the oxygen-laden blood and prevents it from sinking to the bottom.
The lung vessels, however, are filled with oxygen-poor blood, blocking the oxygen-laden blood and forcing oxygen-laden blood to detour into the arteries. These carry the oxygen-laden blood to the tissues. Frog blood has both a solid and a liquid portion. The liquid plasma carries solid elements such as red blood cells and white blood cells. See also Blood. The frog is covered by a soft, thin, moist skin composed of two layers, an outer epidermis and an inner dermis see Skin.
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